Environment, Housing, & American Indians in the 1970s

These three political issues of the early 1970s are most often studied in separately: the environmental movement as an offshoot of the '60s white middle-class counterculture, the continuing effects of residential segregation as evidence of the failure of the African American civil rights movement to solve economic inequalities, and American Indian resistance as a continuation of centuries long conflicts over sovereignty and land ownership. This collection centers around an article from Made By History about a 1972 flood in South Dakota, and six more articles about policy and activism, help us explore the many ways these issues are intertwined. The other articles in the collection explore other ways these themes shaped the early 1970s, and how they intersect in other eras, from the 1930s to the present.
Rescue workers look through the roof of a submerged Rapid City house for flood victims on June 12, 1972.

A Largely Forgotten Flood Ignited The Environmental Justice Movement

The Rapid City flood helped define pervasive environmental injustice and catalyze action.
CORE RESOURCE: In 1972, a deadly flood that tore through a segregated NATIVE AMERICAN neighborhood forced Americans to think about the consequences of racism, HOUSING policy, and ENVIRONMENTAL policy.

The Other 100 Days: 5 Decades Before Trump, the New EPA Truly Made America Great Again

Once upon a time, the EPA had a golden age.
MEANWHILE: After Nixon established the ENVIRONMENTAL Protection Agency in 1971, its leaders wasted no time in enacting regulations and pursuing court cases to combat air and water pollution.
Fish in water next to rocks at the base of Kinzua Dam

Halted Waters

The Seneca Nation and the building of the Kinzua Dam.
PREVIOUSLY: When ENVIRONMENTAL policies included intentional flooding that destroyed AMERICAN INDIANS' homes in New York in the 1950s.