An ad for a runaway slave in the Virginia Gazette, describing Thomas Greenwich, an "East-India Indian."

“Of the East India Breed …”

The first South Asians in British North America.

How We Think About the Term 'Enslaved' Matters

The first Africans who came to America in 1619 were not ‘enslaved’, they were indentured – and this is a crucial difference.

America Cannot Bear to Bring Back Indentured Servitude

It’s a history lesson worth remembering: The exploitation of immigrant workers only encourages more—and worse—abuse.
Statue memorializing Irish immigrants.

No, the Irish Were Not Slaves Too

The myth of Irish slavery has found fertile ground in Internet memes as a way to derail conversation about the need for affirmative action today.
Painting of a young boy working as an apprentice, wearing an apron

How Long Did the School Year Last in Early America?

Even throwing off of a colonial power, representative institutions, Protestantism, and local autonomy in school decisions did not produce an egalitarian system.

Racecraft and the 1619 Project

Historian Barbara J. Fields explains why you can't understand what happened in 1619 without understanding what happened in 1607.
Roadside memorial for Ma’Khia Bryant

Child Welfare Systems Have Long Harmed Black Children Like Ma’Khia Bryant

Instead of caring for Black children, child welfare systems subject them to abuse and harsh conditions.
Breakfast Room at Belle Grove Plantation in White Chapel, Louisiana

Troubled Indemnity

A history of the United States shifting the financial burden of emancipation onto enslaved people.
Two drawings, one of a woman on the left and one of a man on the right

Minorcans, New Smyrna, and the American Revolution in East Florida

The little-known story of the laborers who became pawns in a Floridian struggle during the American Revolution.
Photograph of a teacher standing in an historic cemetery.

Slavery Existed in Illinois, but Schools Don’t Always Teach That History

An Illinois high school teacher explains how his state complicates the binary of “free states” and “slave states.”

How Jamestown Abandoned a Utopian Vision and Embraced Slavery

In 1619, wealthy investors overthrew the charter that guaranteed land for everyone.

The Curious History of Anthony Johnson: From Captive African to Right-Wing Talking Point

Certain pundits are misrepresenting the biography of the "first black slaveholder."

Learning from Jamestown

The violent catastrophe of the Virginia colonists is the best founding parable of American history.

One Man's Quest to Uncover the True Costs of Jim Crow

"It’s going to change how we think about Texas history and how we think about ourselves and how we built this state."

Slavery Myths Debunked

The Irish were slaves too; slaves had it better than factory workvers; black people fought for the Confederacy; and so on.
Greenwood District, Tulsa, Oklahoma.

Class, Race, and the Formation of Urban Black Communities

A review of three new studies about how race and class intersect.
Leaders of the 1963 March on Washington posing in front of the statue of Abraham Lincoln, Lincoln Memorial. August 28, 1963.

How the 1619 Project Distorted History

The 1619 Project claimed to reveal the unknown history of slavery. It ended up helping to distort the real history of slavery and the struggle against it.
Farmers working in an orchard.

The Unlikely Supporters of a Bill That Would Increase Guest Workers

The history of guest worker programs should give pause to supporters of the Farm Workforce Modernization Act.
Black and white photo of the young Mary Ellen next to an empty chair

Origins of Child Protection

Legend says that the campaign to save abused children in New York was driven by the Society for Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. The truth is more complicated.
Harvesting on a Louisiana sugar plantation, 1875; an overseer monitors laborers in the field, while a factory billows smoke in the background.

Making Sugar, Making ‘Coolies’

Chinese laborers toiled alongside Black workers on 19th-century Louisiana plantations.