Frederick Park and Ernest Boulton, two non gender-conforming people in London, 1869. The cross-dressers were put on trial as

What is Trans History?

From activist and academic roots, a field takes shape.
A print depicting the surrender by General Lee to General Grant at Appomattox Court House in Virginia, April 9, 1865.

The Unlikely Paths of Grant and Lee

The two men met at Appomattox. The loser would become a role model, the victor an embarrassment.
An image posted by Kanye West on his Twitter account in April, 2018.

Kanye’s Brand of “Freethinking” Has a Long, Awful History

His condemnation of enslaved people’s failure to rebel is drawn from a dangerous ideology that’s older than the United States.
An 1863 photograph that became known as “The Scourged Back”’ shows the whipping scars on Gordon, a former slave in Louisiana who escaped to Union lines.

The Historian Behind Slavery Apologists Like Kanye West

In 1918, Ulrich Bonnell Phillips published “American Negro Slavery,” framing slavery as a labor agreement.
Chance White holds a confederate flag as he drives past a protest in October 2015.

As God Is My Witness

A year-long series of photographs and stories that explain the struggle between the old South and the new.

Andrew Jackson was A Slaver, Ethnic Cleanser, and Tyrant

Andrew Jackson deserves nothing but contempt from modern America, not a place on our currency.
Cudjo Lewis outside his home in Alabama in the 1930s.

The Last Slave

In 1931, Zora Neale Hurston recorded the story of Cudjo Lewis, the last living slave-ship survivor. It languished in a vault... until now.
The Notorious B.I.G.

The Notorious Night Biggie Was Murdered in Los Angeles

Shaq, Baron Davis, and Nick Van Exel reflect on The Notorious B.I.G., his murder, and the city they called home.
German chancellor and Nazi Party leader Adolf Hitler gives a speech to supporters, 1939.

How American Racism Influenced Hitler

Scholars are mapping the international precursors of Nazism.
Inside the National Memorial for Peace and Justice, in Montgomery, AL.

A Lynching Memorial Is Opening. The Country Has Never Seen Anything Like It.

The National Memorial for Peace and Justice in Montgomery, Alabama, is dedicated to victims of white supremacy.
Conservator Cameron Wilson of New York City cleans up the sculpture of founding father and the first Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton inside the rotunda of the U.S. Capitol October 19, 2005 in Washington, DC.

How the ‘Hamilton Effect’ Distorts the Founders

Too often, we look to history not to understand it, but to seek out confirmation for our preexisting beliefs. That’s a problem.
World War I memorial

How Should World War I Be Taught in American Schools?

The two versions of WWI taught in most schools tell us as much about the present as they do about the past.